Marc shares some of the events that happened on this day in history, including the charging of John T. Scopes, with teaching evolution, a 1966 rally at Soldier Field in Chicago in which Martin Luther King Jr. spoke to a crowd of 60,000 people, and Boris Yeltsin taking office as the first elected president of the Russian republic.
Armed Forces Day (Mauritania)
National Day of Commemoration (Ireland)
Independence Day, celebrates the independence of the Bahamas from the United Kingdom in 1973
Silence Day (Followers of Meher Baba)
Statehood Day (Wyoming)
Nikola Tesla Day
Beatles Day (Liverpool and Hamburg)
1836: 900 Creek Indians from Eneah Emathla’s Band, are captured. They are shipped west, in chains, to catch up to the Creeks that have already left for the Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). The Battle of Brushy Creek also takes place in Cook County, Georgia.
1854: According to their Indian Agent, 200 Sacs and Foxes, are attacked by a force of 1500 Comanches, Kiowas, Osage, and Apaches near Smoky Hill, 100 miles west of Fort Riley, in central Kansas. The Sac and Foxes are armed with rifles, and they prevail over their better number adversaries. The Sacs report only six killed, the other Indians have as many as twenty-six killed, and 100 wounded. Both sides are surprised the Sac and Foxes win the fight.
1894 – Some 14,000 federal and state troops finally succeed in putting down the strike against the Pullman Palace Car Co., which had been peaceful until July 5, when federal troops intervened in Chicago, against the repeated protests of the governor and Chicago’s mayor. A total of 34 American Railway Union members were killed by troops over the course of the strike.
1902 – A powerful explosion rips through the Rolling Mill coal mine in Johnstown, Pa., killing 112 miners, 83 of whom were immigrants from Poland and Slovakia.
1916 – The San Francisco Chamber of Commerce holds a mass meeting of more than 2,000 merchants to organize what was to become a frontal assault on union strength and the closed shop. The failure of wages to keep up with inflation after the 1906 earthquake had spurred multiple strikes in the city.
1925: John T. Scopes, a science teacher in Tennessee, was charged with violating the state’s Butler Act, which made it illegal to teach evolution in Tennessee schools. The trial was based on the charge he did unlawfully and willfully teach in Tennessee schools certain theories that deny the story of the divine creation of man as told in the Bible. He was found guilty on July 21st and received a $100 fine.
1962 – Telstar, the world’s first communications satellite, is launched into orbit.
1964 – James Thomas was elected Bishop of the predominantly white Iowa district of the Methodist Church on this date in 1964.
1965: The Rolling Stones have their first number 1 single on the US Billboard charts “I Can’t Get No Satisfaction” from the album “Out of Our Heads”
1966 – The Chicago Freedom Movement, led by Martin Luther King, Jr., holds a rally at Soldier Field in Chicago, Illinois. As many as 60,000 people come to hear Dr. King as well as Mahalia Jackson, Stevie Wonder, and Peter Paul and Mary.
1991: Boris N. Yeltsin takes office as the first elected president of the Russian republic.
1997 – In London scientists report the findings of the DNA analysis of a Neanderthal skeleton which supports the “out of Africa theory” of human evolution placing an “African Eve” at 100,000 to 200,000 years ago.
1999: The U.S. women’s soccer team wins the final between the U.S. and China beating the Chinese team in a penalty shootout at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, Calif making them the FIFA Women’s World Cup champions.
2011: A businessman from Chicago reached 10 million frequent flyer miles with United Airlines after twenty-nine years of loyalty to the airline company. As a reward for his feat he will never have to wait in line, always gets upgraded, and will have a plane named after him. Thomas Stuker had been on 5,962 flights before reaching this milestone.
2012: The Episcopal Church has become the largest denomination in the US to bless same-sex relationships. During the church’s general convention in Indianapolis, Indiana, nearly eighty-percent of the House of Deputies voted in favor of a three year trial run of a same sex service to be called the “Witnessing and Blessing of a Lifelong Covenant”, it had also been approved by the House of Bishops.
1799: Francis Hill born (missionary, educator)
1804: Emma Hale Smith born (Mormon pioneer, first president of the Relief Society of the Mormon Church)
1809: Laura Sheldon Wright born (missionary, linguist)
1828: Amanda Way born (reformer, preacher)
1875 – Mary McLeod Bethune, educator, civil rights leader, and founder of Bethune-Cookman College and the National Council of Negro Women, was born in Mayesville, SC, on this date in 1875. Bethune was honored with the unveiling of a National Monument on the grounds of the Capitol in Washington, DC, on this date in 1974.
1884: Harriet Wiseman Elliott born (educator, public official)
1889: Noble Sissle, a pioneer jazz figure, was born in Indianapolis, IN, on this date in 1889. Sissle and Eubie Blake wrote Shuffle Along, a pioneer musical featuring Josephine Baker, Florence Mills, Caterina Jarboro, William Grant Still, and Hal Johnson.
1920 – David Brinkley, American journalist (d. 2003)
1921 – Harvey Ball, American illustrator, created the Smiley (d. 2001)
1921 – Jake LaMotta, American boxer.
1921 – Eunice Kennedy Shriver, American activist, co-founded the Special Olympics (d. 2009)
1924 – Bobo Brazil, American wrestler (d. 1998)
1926 – Fred Gwynne, American actor (d. 1993)
1927 – David Dinkins, American politician, 106th Mayor of New York City.
1931: Alice Munro born (short story writer, winner of 2013 Nobel Prize for Literature)
1934 – Jerry Nelson, American “Muppeteer” for Jim Henson’s Muppets and voice actor (d. 2012)
1938 – Lee Morgan, American trumpet player and composer (d. 1972)
1943 – Arthur Ashe, the first Black male tennis player to win Wimbledon, was born in Richmond, VA, on this date in 1943
1949 – John Whitehead, American singer-songwriter and producer (McFadden & Whitehead) (d. 2004)
1957 – Cindy Sheehan, American activist.
1941 – Ferdinand “Jelly Roll” Morton, famed jazz composer and pianist, died in Los Angeles, CA, on this date in 1941.
1946 – Sidney Hillman dies at age 59. He led the Amalgamated Clothing Workers, was a key figure in the founding of the Congress of Industrial Organizations and was a close advisor to President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
1972 – Lovie Austin, American pianist, composer, and bandleader (b. 1887)
1978 – John D. Rockefeller III, American businessman and philanthropist, founded the Asia Society (b. 1906)
1987 – John Hammond, American record producer, critic, and activist (b. 1910)
Sources: The People History; This Day in Labor History;Wikipedia List of Historical Anniversaries; This Day in Women’s History; This Day in African History;History.com; History Orb; Yenoba; Selected Black Facts; Phil Konstantin’s North American Indian History; and This Day in Music