Marc discusses some events from this day in history, including the deaths of Florence Nightingale, HG Wells, and Julia Child, and the births of Annie Oakley, Alfred Hitchcock, and Fidel Castro. It is also the day the Central African Republic declared its independence.
On this day in history:
1521: Montezuma’s nephew, and successor, Cuahtemoc surrenders to Cortés. His name is spelled Guatimozin in some sources.
1536 – Buddhist monks from Kyoto, Japan’s Enryaku-ji temple set fire to 21 Nichiren temples throughout in what will be known as the Tenbun Hokke Disturbance. (Traditional Japanese date: July 27, 1536).
1645: For several years, the Dutch, and the local Indian tribes near New Amsterdam and Pavonia, have been fighting. Hackensack Chief Oratamin negotiates a peace between the warring parties. It is another ten years before another major conflict erupted.
1831 – Nat Turner sees a solar eclipse, which he believes is a sign from God. Eight days later he and 70 other slaves kill approximately 55 whites in Southampton County, Virginia.
The Baltimore Afro-American newspaper was founded on this date in 1892.
1898 – Spanish–American War: Spanish and American forces engaged in a mock battle for Manila, after which the Spanish commander surrendered in order to keep the city out of Filipino rebel hands.
Black soldiers raided Brownsville, TX, in retaliation for racial insults-killing one white man and wounding two-on this date in 1906 — 1906 – The all black infantrymen of the U.S. Army’s 25th Infantry Regiment are accused of killing a white bartender and wounding a white police officer in Brownsville, Texas, despite exculpatory evidence; all are later dishonorably discharged.
1918 – Women enlist in the United States Marine Corps for the first time. Opha Mae Johnson is the first woman to enlist.
1920 : The Soviet Union begins it’s assault on Warsaw in Poland which the Poles managed to halt and eventually gained independence for Poland from the Soviet Union.
1953 : France had four million workers go on a massive strike as unions sparred with the government and its economic policies. The situation was so bad that even convicts were pressed into service in an attempt to fill the gap left by the strikers. The only people that were happy were tourists who were jubilant that customs officers walked off the job and all baggage could leave the country without inspection.
The Central African Republic gained its independence on this date in 1960.
1966 : China has announced It’s Cultural Revolution and that by reorganizing the current small farming collectives into great communes workers would be released to work in industry. With the Cultural Revolution came persecution of radical students and teachers and colleges were effectively closed down, and Chairman Mao also used the time to purge his rivals. A bi-product of the Cultural Revolution was that grain output declined leading to the country’s largest famine in history.
1966, 13 August – President Habib Ali Bourguiba bans the wearing of mini-skirts in Tunisia.
1978 – 150 Palestinians in Beirut are killed in a terrorist attack during the second phase of the Lebanese Civil War.
1984, 13 August – Morocco and Libya form a federation.
The bodies of Congressman George Thomas “Mickey” Leland and 15 others were discovered on this date in 1989-six days after their plane crashed. Leland, a strong advocate for the hungry, chaired the House Select Committee on World Hunger.
Born on this day in history:
1818: Lucy Stone born (reformer, publisher) — “We want rights. The flour-merchant, the house-builder, and the postman charge us no less on account of our sex; but when we endeavor to earn money to pay all these, then, indeed, we find the difference. — Lucy Stone”
1849: Leonora Marie Kearney Barry born (reformer) Leonora worked tirelessly to improve the wages and working condition of women and children around the country and she traveled widely to organize and investigate for the Knights of Labor. Her teaching experience was invaluable as she worked to educate women workers and inspire them to form and join labor unions. She wrote annual reports which were detailed indictments of the effects of the factory system on women and children. Her reports helped lead to a factory inspection law passed in Pennsylvania in 1989.
1860 – Annie Oakley, born Phoebe Ann Mosey, was an American sharpshooter and exhibition shooter. Oakley’s “amazing talent” led to a starring role in Buffalo Bill’s Wild West show.
1899 – Alfred Hitchcock, English-American director and producer (d. 1980)
James Benton Parsons, the first Black person to receive a lifetime appointment as a U.S. District Court Judge, was born in Kansas City, MO, on this date in 1911.
Claudia McNeil, actress and star in A Raisin in the Sun, was born in Baltimore, MD, on this date in 1917.
1926 – Fidel Castro, Cuban lawyer and politician, 15th President of Cuba
1933: Joycelyn Elders born (physician, public official)
Died on this day in history:
1913: Florence Nightingale died (nurse, statistician) celebrated English social reformer and statistician, and the founder of modern nursing. She came to prominence while serving as a nurse during the Crimean War, where she tended to wounded soldiers.
1946 – H. G. Wells, English journalist and author (b. 1866)
2004 – Julia Child, American chef (b. 1912)
1924 – “The Prisoner’s Song” by Vernon Dalhart became the first country music record to sell one million copies.
1938 – Robert Johnson played a show at a roadhouse outside Greenwood, MS. It speculated that Johnson was poisoned by the bar owner. Johnson died several days later.
1952 – The original version of “Hound Dog” was recorded by Willie Mae (Big Mama) Thornton.
1963 : Elvis Presley’s Girls! Girls! Girls! LP is certified gold
1964 : The Kinks score their first hit as You Really Got Me, written by Ray Davies on his mother’s piano, enters the British charts.
1964 : The Supremes recorded Baby Love
1966 – The Supremes’ “You Can’t Hurry Love” was released.
1967 – The Daughters of the American Revolution refused to allow Joan Baez to perform at Constitution Hall in Washington, DC. because of her opposition to the Vietnam War.
1990 – Curtis Mayfield was paralyzed after a light rack fell on him before a concert in Brooklyn, NY.
2007 : Fats Domino is honored as an “American Music Legend” by the Recording Industry Association of America.
Music History BIRTHDAYS:
1879 – Composer John Ireland was born.
1904 – Buddy Rogers, American actor and trombonist (d. 1999)
1919 : George Shearing
1921 – Jimmy McCracklin, American singer-songwriter and pianist (d. 2012)
1925 – Benny Bailey, American trumpet player, songwriter, and producer (Kenny Clarke/Francy Boland Big Band) (d. 2005)
1930 – Don Ho, American singer and ukulele player (d. 2007)
1938 : Dave “Baby” Cortez
1940 : John Stokes (The Bachelors)
1948: Kathleen Battle born (opera singer)
1948 – Scott Powell, American singer (Sha Na Na)
1949 : Cliff Fish (Paper Lace)
1951 : Dan Fogelberg
1952 : Hughie Thomasson of Outlaws and Lynyrd Skynyrd is born in Tampa, Florida.
Music History DEATHS:
1968 : Joe Hinton
1971 – King Curtis, at the age of 37, was stabbed to death outside his New York home.
1982 : Southern Soul singer Joe Tex dies of a heart attack at age 47 in Navasota, Texas.
1995 : Biggie Tempo (Bhundu Boys)
2003 : Ed Townsend
2005 : Francine Barker – the original Peaches in Peaches & Herb.
2009 – Les Paul, American guitarist and songwriter (b. 1915)
2009 : Allen Shellenberger (Lit)
Sources: The People History; This Day in Labor History; Wikipedia List of Historical Anniversaries; This Day in Women’s History; This Day in African History;History.com; History Orb; Yenoba; Selected Black Facts; Phil Konstantin’s North American Indian History; and This Day in Music